What is an Astigmatism?
Astigmatism usually occurs when the front surface of the eye (the cornea) has an irregular curvature. The cornea should be smooth and equally curved in all directions (like a basketball). However, in astigmatism, the front surface of the cornea is more oval in shape (like a football). This causes light to be improperly focused onto the back surface of the eye (the retina), much like an out of focus image onto a film screen. This may result in vision that is much like looking into a distorted, wavy mirror.
Astigmatism is not a disease, nor does it mean that you have "bad eyes." It simply means that the front surface of the eye is not round, and in fact some studies have found that as many as 90% of the population have some amount of astigmatism. If the amount of astigmatism is low (less than 0.75 diopters) correction is not often needed. For moderate and higher amounts of astigmatism (0.75 to 6.00 diopters) correction is usually needed. The amount of astigmatism measured in your right eye was <Cyl OD> and in your left eye was <Cyl OS>.
Treatment is usually simple and can include:
- Eyeglasses, which bring light back into focus properly on the retina
- Contact lenses, using special lenses called "Toric" lenses
- LASIK surgery, which can reshape the front surface of the eye and eliminate astigmatism
- Corneal molding, special RGP contact lenses that are worn overnight to reshape the cornea
The exact reason for differences in corneal shape remains unknown, but the tendency to develop astigmatism has an inherited component (it runs in the family). For that reason, some people are simply more prone to develop astigmatism than others.
Symptoms of astigmatism include a distortion or blurring of images at all distances - nearby as well as at a distance. Even with small amounts of astigmatism, where vision may be fairly sharp, patients may experience fatigue, squinting, and eye discomfort or irritation. In children, astigmatism may contribute to poor school work but is often not detected during routine screenings in schools.